Indonesia is famous for its unique archipelago richness in architecture. One of them is traditional Balinese architecture. The uniqueness of traditional Balinese architecture is very distinctive and becomes a study both at home and abroad as well as giving influence to several modern architectural streams today.
In fact, the popularity of traditional Balinese architecture is inseparable from the rich philosophy and also the inherent cultural elements. Come on, get to know more traditional Balinese architecture through 5 interesting facts from the following traditional Balinese architecture!
7 Philosophy from Traditional Balinese Architecture
Traditional Balinese architecture is very closely related to elements of Hindu culture and teachings. This is reflected in the following 7 philosophies:
- Tri Hata Karana: harmony and balance 3 elements of life, namely: atma (human), spirit (nature), and khaya (gods).
- Tri Mandala: structure or zoning l
- Sanga Mandala: spatial zoning
- Tri Angga: structuring the hierarchy of buildings with other realms
- Tri Loka: building a relationship with nature
- Asta Kosala Kosali: 8 architectural design guidelines about symbols, temples, stages, and units of measurement
- Sea Cliffs: sacred axis lines of mountains and oceans
Traditional Balinese Architecture with Traditional Measurement Methods
In accordance with the philosophy of "Asta Kosala Kosali" in traditional Balinese architecture, the measurement system in the Balinese development process uses a method that is still very traditional and adapted to the ergonomic aspects of the residents of Bali houses, namely by using units of measurement from the occupants. Some of the units of measurement from traditional Balinese architecture are:
- Aug: Sebuku fingers ( two nyari: two fingers, evening nyari: four fingers)
- Alek: along the middle finger, and akacing: along the index finger
- Musti: a handclasp with the thumb facing up
- Hasta /asta: a distance of the hand from the middle wrist to the tip of the middle finger which is open from an adult.
- Fathom the size of two arms stretched from left to right, and several other methods of measuring traditional Balinese architecture.
"Sanga Mandala" Space Zoning System in Traditional Balinese Architecture
Looking at the layout plan of traditional Balinese architecture, you will find a similar pattern because the zoning arrangement of traditional Balinese architecture uses the concept of "Sangga Mandala", where the building is divided into 9 section boxes (3 × 3) with the concept of the main division, intermediate, contempt determine the function of each space. The nine zoning divisions of traditional Balinese architecture are:
Regulations in the Arrangement of Home Yard in Traditional Balinese Architecture
One of the elements in traditional Balinese architecture is the existence of home yards which are generally located in the middle of a traditional Balinese architectural complex. Uniquely, in determining the yard in the traditional Balinese architecture, there are rules and restrictions that must be followed. Some of them are:
- Ngeluanin Temple: not next to the East or North of the Temple unless there are separators such as alley, rice field, fields, or river.
- Numbak Rurung: do not be in a position " skewer ".
- Karang Kalingkuhan: not flanked by the yard or house of another family.
- Coral Amuk Coral: can not be carried away by the rooftop from someone else's house.
- Negative Reef: cannot be directly adjacent to public roads.
Traditional Balinese Architecture and Tri Angga Structure Concepts
The structure of the building with the traditional Balinese architectural style is inseparable from the traditional philosophy, namely "Tri Angga" which is divided into 3 parts in accordance with the balance of nature's preservation. In the principle of traditional Balinese architecture, the building structure is divided into:
- Main (head): the highest symbol which is manifested in the form of a roof, in traditional Balinese architecture the roof is generally made of palm fiber and reeds. But now it has developed into tile and other modern materials.
- Madya (body): the shape of the building walls, windows, and doors typical of Balinese architecture.
- Insults (feet): is the bottom of the building, the foundation of the house or under the house that is used as a buffer. Generally using stone or brick.
Basically, all concepts in traditional Balinese architecture refer to cosmology, nature, culture, and of course the ergonomic side of the inhabitants themselves. In the process, there are also many cultural rituals involved.
Now, of course, you appreciate the values of traditional Balinese architecture, right? Interested in applying it to your residence?